Study on the contribution of agricultural mechanization to farmers’ income increase

  Ways of agricultural mechanization to promote farmers’ income increase

  Improving labor productivity is the fundamental to promote farmers’ income, and agricultural machinery is the key element to improve labor productivity. The promotion effect of agricultural mechanization on farmers’ income is mainly reflected in the following six aspects.

  (a) increase production and income.

Agricultural mechanization is conducive to improving the quality of farming, striving for farming time, ensuring timely sowing and harvesting, and improving crop yield per unit area. [2] For example, in recent years, the large-scale promotion of deep pine operation of agricultural machinery can enhance soil water storage and crop resistance to collapse, increasing crop yields by 5-10%.

  (B) increase efficiency and income.

First, through the development of cross-area operations, order operations, land trust and other agricultural machinery socialization services and land transfer scale operation, improve labor productivity, resource utilization, land output rate. Second, agricultural machinery households, agricultural machinery cooperatives through the agricultural machinery services chain from the production of plowing, seeding, harvesting, plant protection to pre-production of agricultural supplies, seed processing, rice seedling and post-production of grain drying, primary processing of agricultural products, so that agriculture and industry, service industry integration development, enjoy the value-added benefits of the whole industry chain. Third, through the use of agricultural waste to increase the benefits. Such as mechanized return of crop straw to the field, mechanized baling film silage and other fertilizer, feed utilization, turning waste into treasure and increasing farmers’ income.

  (C) cost savings and income.

Agricultural mechanization is conducive to reducing labor, conservation tillage, water-saving irrigation, fertilizer deep application, seeding, precision sowing, efficient plant protection, film recycling, maintenance and other agricultural mechanization technology promotion and popularization, is conducive to reducing water, fertilizer, medicine, seed, film, oil inputs, saving production costs.

  (D) reduce losses and increase income.

Mechanical operations with high efficiency, to ensure timely harvesting of crops, reduce or even avoid collapse, mold and other disaster losses. At the same time, through the promotion and application of efficient and low-loss harvesting, energy-saving and efficient drying and other agricultural mechanization technology, can effectively reduce the loss of food mold, increase farmers’ income.

  (E) transfer of employment to increase income.

The substitution of agricultural machinery operations for labor is very significant. In recent years, the total number of migrant workers in the country remained at about 280 million. Stable transfer of farmers to non-agricultural industries, relying on the strong support of agricultural mechanization. The proportion of farmers’ wage income in total income has increased year by year, reaching 45.3% in 2013, surpassing family business income and becoming the most important factor for farmers to increase their income.

  (F) Policy subsidies to increase income.

Since 2004, the state has implemented subsidies for the purchase of agricultural machinery, subsidies for the scrapping and renewal of agricultural machinery and subsidies for the deep pine operation of agricultural machinery, and the total amount of subsidies for the purchase of agricultural machinery from the central government alone has reached 161.7 billion yuan, directly benefiting hundreds of millions of farmers.

  The relationship between agricultural mechanization and farmers’ income model

  The level of agricultural mechanization can be expressed by the comprehensive mechanization rate of crop cultivation, seeding and harvesting, and the level of farmers’ income can be expressed by the per capita net income of rural residents. To eliminate the influence of price change factors, the net income per rural resident is characterized by an index with constant prices in 1978 and a base of 100. According to the above analysis, the increase in the level of agricultural mechanization causes an increase in farmers’ income, so the comprehensive mechanization rate of crop cultivation, planting and harvesting is used as the explanatory variable, and the net income per rural resident is used as the explained variable.

  Using Eviews software to depict the scatter plot, it can be seen that there is an exponential growth relationship between the per capita net income of rural residents and the integrated mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvesting. Therefore, the proposed model is chosen: ln(rjcsr)=α+β?jxhl+μ. Where: rjcsr represents the per capita net income of rural residents and jxhl represents the integrated mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvesting.

  The regression analysis of the data in Table 1 using Eviews software resulted in ln(rjcsr)=5.273952+0.031549?jxhl or rjcsr=e(5.273952+0.031549?jxhl). The decidable coefficient R2 = 0.983351 indicates that the model fits well overall; the t-test values of the intercept term and slope term are 82.29782 and 25.48884, respectively, both of which are greater than the critical value of t0.025(11) = 2.201 for a degree of freedom of n-2 = 11 at 5% significance level, indicating that the model fits well.

  The left and right ends of the model are simultaneously derived for jxhl, yielding rjcsr′=0.031549?e(5.273952+0.031549?jxhl), indicating that the incremental size of rjcsr is related to jxhl, and the more jxhl is at a high point, the larger the incremental size of rjcsr becomes. rjcsr shows such a quantitative relationship with jxhl for the following reasons :

  (a) agricultural mechanization from a single link to plowing, sowing, harvesting the whole process of upgrading.

Some years ago only solved the problem of machine plowing, there are a large number of farmers engaged in agricultural labor; in recent years, machine plowing, machine sowing, machine harvesting problems have been solved, there are a large number of farmers can be steadily transferred to non-agricultural industries, increasing the income from business.

  (B) agricultural mechanization from food crops to the full expansion of cash crops.

In previous years, the mechanization of food crops first developed, in recent years, the mechanization of cash crops developed, but because of the higher prices and benefits of cash crops, cash crops mechanization every 1 percentage point, than the mechanization of food crops to improve 1 percentage point, the pull effect on farmers’ income is greater.

  (C) agricultural mechanization technology content continues to improve.

Such as deep plowing and deep pine and traditional rotary tillage, precision sowing and traditional machine sowing, efficient harvesting and traditional machine harvesting, compared with the machine plowing rate, machine sowing rate, machine harvesting rate value of the same situation, deep plowing and deep pine, precision sowing, efficient harvesting and other modern agricultural mechanization technology on the pull of farmers’ income is greater.

  (D) the organization form of agricultural mechanization from farm machinery households to farm machinery cooperatives upgrade.

In previous years, the organization of agricultural mechanization in the form of farm machinery households; in recent years, agricultural machinery cooperatives have flourished, the scale of agricultural mechanization business benefits gradually emerged.

  Countermeasure suggestions to improve the contribution of agricultural mechanization to farmers’ income increase

  From the above model and analysis, it can be seen that to promote the whole process of agricultural mechanization, comprehensive development, improve the scientific and technological content of agricultural mechanization, and promote the organization of agricultural mechanization to scale upgrade, is the key to improve the contribution of agricultural mechanization to farmers’ income. To this end, the author suggests that.

  (a) vigorously optimize the supply structure of agricultural mechanization, to optimize the structure to promote income.

Adhere to the problem-oriented, focus on food crops, cash crop production and animal husbandry and aquaculture, forestry and fruit industry, agricultural products, the development of the short board and weak links, directed efforts to accelerate the breakthrough of agricultural mechanization throughout, comprehensive, high quality, efficient development of bottleneck constraints.

Focus on the restructuring of agricultural products, regional layout optimization, accelerate the upgrading of cotton, oil and sugar and other bulk cash crops, mixed grains and beans, vegetables and fruits, tea, mulberry, flowers and seedlings, edible mushrooms, Chinese herbs and other advantages of agricultural production and livestock farming mechanization level, and actively promote the hilly mountain agricultural mechanization. By optimizing the supply structure of agricultural mechanization, further explore the potential for income generation within agriculture and rural areas, while promoting the transfer of rural labor to non-agricultural industries for employment and increase the income of farmers.

  (B) the in-depth implementation of innovation-driven strategy to promote income generation with scientific and technological support.

Actively promote R & D innovation of modern agricultural equipment, give full play to the main body of innovation of enterprises and the Government’s planning guidance support role, build R & D innovation platform, gather talent, technology, resource advantages, targeting key aspects of agricultural mechanization, common technologies, core components, joint research.

Vigorously strengthen the demonstration and promotion of new machinery and new technologies, and actively carry out training of professional and technical personnel and practical skills in agricultural mechanization, and promote the development of agricultural mechanization from quantitative growth, demand-driven to quality improvement, innovation-driven transformation, from the traditional low-end to modern high-end upgrade, and constantly improve the scientific and technological content of agricultural mechanization development, and enhance the role of agricultural mechanization to promote farmers’ income.

  (C) seize the opportunity of strong machine policy to promote income with policy support.

Intensive implementation of agricultural machinery purchase subsidies and end-of-life renewal subsidies policy, to guide the elimination of traditional backward agricultural machinery, speed up the equipment of new high-end agricultural machinery. In-depth implementation of deep pine, straw field, efficient plant protection, grain drying and other key aspects of agricultural machinery operating subsidies, so that the land power to improve, farmers benefit.

Continue to tilt the agricultural policy to agricultural machinery cooperatives, help agricultural machinery cooperatives to solve the financing difficulties, land difficulties and other problems, and promote the standardization and innovative development of agricultural machinery cooperatives. Strengthen the strength of credit, insurance and other agricultural policies, and actively carry out large agricultural machinery mortgage, financial leasing credit business, agricultural machinery safety insurance into the scope of policy insurance support, to achieve financial and financial “two-wheel drive”, and cultivate new momentum of policy to promote agricultural income.